The plateau accommodates nowadays 9 pyramids, the biggest among them is the pyramid of King Cheops, also called the great pyramid of Egypt. In this area you can see two other pyramids, those of King Kephren, and King Mecarinoos. The pyramid of Cheops ( Khufu) used to be 146 m High,but due to losing the most outer layer of stone, it is now 137 m in height. The length of the base is 230 m, while it was built on 12 acres. The ancient Egyptians used about 3 million limestone blocks to build this pyramid which considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
The Pyramid was once part of a huge complex extended from the current village of Nazlet El-seman where the valley temple of King Cheops was standing, to the western side of the Pyramid itself where visitors nowadays see the workers and Noble tombs, This complex consisted of
- The main tomb (the pyramid)
- The tomb's entrance to the northern side of the Pyramid
- A funeral temple to the eastern side of the pyramid
- A valley temple
- A cause way connects the funeral temple with the valley temple.
- An enclosure wall surrounding the complex
The interior of the pyramid is massive, except for some three chambers and some corridors. As shown in the below picture, "B" is the original entrance of the great pyramid which is still blocked since the time of the Pharaohs, "A" is the entrance in use by visitors which was hewn in the rock in the 11th century by the workers of Khalife Ma'moon while he was seeking the treasures of king Khufu. From the original entrance "B" there is a 100 meters descending vestibule ends with the so called blind chamber "C" which was dug originally to be the burial place of the king, but it was left unfinished and that is the reason why it is called "blind". from the entrance "B" and after 35 meters, starts an ascending vestibule of 36 meters, and then another horizontal vestibule leads to the second chamber "D" called "the Queen chamber", and that name was given to the chamber after being thought to be built for Khufu's wife, but this is not true as this chamber was built also to be the eternal place of the king's mummy!! Look at "E" on the picture below, this is a grand gallery with 48 meters length leads to the third chamber "F" which is the actual burial chamber of king Khufu. This third chamber is the biggest among all the chambers inside this pyramid, the stone sarcophagus of the king was found inside it however, it was found empty and broken with no lid, and that indicates that the mummy, the treasures, and even the lid were all stolen. The width and height of the sarcophagus are bigger than the width and height of the entrance to the chamber which means the sarcophagus was located inside the chamber before finalizing it and before the ceiling was added!
Above the third chamber "F" there are 5 small empty rooms "G" were left empty to reduce pressure of stones above the chamber. In the middle room of the 5 rooms, a phrase was found written in Hieroglyphic says "construction work of the eternal place of king "Khunum-Kha-F-Wi" has been finished in the 23rd year of his reign". This phrase is so important as it is the only evidence that the great pyramid belongs to Khufu and that it was built at his time by the ancient Egyptians! Also it gives a very important piece of info which is that the pyramid was built in 23 years!
The great pyramid was never decorated from the outside, and we found no inscriptions or writings except for the above mentioned phrase that was found inside the room above the burial chamber! The angle of slope for the great pyramid is 51.52 orientation.
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