Alexander the Great was one of those guys who wanted to leave an indelible mark on history and influence the course of events. Alexander III of Macedon’s life “356–323 BC” is replete with amazing tales of grandeur and awe, since he was one of history’s most successful military commanders who stayed unbeaten until his death. He was able to have genuine influence outside of his own land, inspiring the vast Hellenistic period that spanned Alexandria to the rest of the globe. Alexander aspired to construct a utopia in his own image and realize the entire scope of his unfathomable ambition.
Alexander the Great Facts and History
Alexander III of Macedon (356 B.C. -323 B.C.) was known as “Undefeated in Battle” and one of history’s most successful military commanders, as well as for his grandiose dream of reaching the extremities of the globe and the huge outer oceans. At 356 B.C., he was born to “King Philip II” of Macedon and his lovely bride Olympia in Pella (The Ancient Capital of Ancient Greek in Macedonia). Aristotle educated him in the disciplines of literature, medicine, philosophy, and science until he was 16 years old. He, like the rest of his people, practiced Hellenism, a Greek polytheistic religion that honored Greek gods such as Zeus, Apollo, Athena, Poseidon, and others. At the age of 20, he succeeded his father following his assassination in 336 B.C. and became the lawful monarch of a powerful country with an experienced army. He assassinated all of his opponents and was given the generalship of Greece. He utilized his newfound authority to fulfill his father’s goal of leading the Greeks in the invasion of Persia. He spent most of his reign conducting unparalleled military expeditions in northeast Africa and Asia. He began conquering the Persian Empire in 334 B.C. and continued invading till he reached India in 326 B.C. One of his most famous engagements was the siege of Tyre in 332 BC, which he won over the Phoenician army.
Alexander the Great’s Wives and Children
In his lifetime, he married three times: Roxana of Bactria, Stateira, and Parysatis, daughter of Ochus. Alexander IV of Macedon, his only child, was born to Roxana shortly after his death in 323 BC.
Alexander the Great’s Most Important Achievements
After conquering Gaza and defeating the Persian Emperor Darius for control of Syria and the Levant at the Battle of Pelusium, Alexander the Great went to Egypt, which was still part of the Persian Empire. On November 14, 332 B.C., he marched his army towards Pelusium (the Eastern Gateway to Egypt) and invaded Egypt. Because the Egyptians viewed him as a liberator, and because the Persians had little control over the Egyptian people or respect for religion or culture, they welcomed him with open arms. He encountered no opposition or resistance from Persian forces and was able to easily enter Egypt. He then led his forces to the capital of Memphis and the Mediterranean coast, where he saw a piece of land between the sea and a lake with a reliable freshwater supply and ordered his architect “Democrats” to build him a city on that site, which became known as “Alexandria.” Egypt was one of the foundations of Greek civilization, according to him. He used his diplomatic skills by declaring himself the son of the god Amun-Ra, renovating Tuthmosis III’s chapel and the temples of Karnak, and offering sacrifices to God Ptah. He was depicted on the temple of Amun-Ra dressed as a pharaoh and identified with a text reading “King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands, Son of Re, Possessor of the Crowns, Alexander,” After conquering Egypt in October 331 BC, he went to Persia, where he fought a major war and was able to enter India in 326 BC.
The Great Alexander’s Legacy
His instructor “Aristotle” instructed him as a young kid to constantly maintain the equilibrium between all parties. When it came time to create his administrative system, he picked Egyptian, Greek, and Macedonian delegates and generals so that they would all feel empowered and work to realize Alexander’s ambition of building a vast empire. Alexander also allowed all Greek and Macedonian immigrants to enter Egypt. He aspired to create a multi-cultural province with a diverse range of languages and cultures that would serve as a real emblem of collaboration between these ancient civilizations. Alexander barely stayed in Egypt for six months, yet he was able to undertake enormous restorations and changes, bringing Egypt into the circle of Greek culture.
The Death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great died of malaria at the age of 32 in 323 BC, leaving a vast legacy of cultural dissemination, magnificent buildings, syncretism, and a series of stories that changed history. His dominion was split after his death, with each of his generals controlling a portion of his country. Egypt was ruled by Ptolemy, who invaded Egypt and founded the Ptolemaic Dynasty until it was captured by the Roman dynasty in 32 B.C.
Alexander the Great’s Tomb
Many think Ptolemy took Alexander’s remains and buried him at Memphis or Alexandria, making the burial of Alexander the Great one of life’s biggest mysteries. His tomb has yet to be discovered.
Discover Egypt’s Hidden Treasures
Egypt has a wonderful legacy that is still being discovered to this day, so you may see Egypt’s beautiful temples, tombs, and museums during your trip to Egypt, book one of our stunning Egypt tour packages or Egypt Nile cruises and have the vacation you deserve.