The first stage in constructing a pyramid was to choose a suitable location. Because the west was where the sunset and where the deceased were supposed to reach the underworld, this had to be on the west bank of the Nile. The pyramids were also required to be built on high land, away from potential floods during the Nile’s inundation.
The river would be used to transport blocks of excellent grade limestone for the outer casing from Tura, on the opposite side of the Nile, therefore it couldn’t be too far away from the bank. The proposed location would be on the desert plateau, where there would be a strong rock base capable of bearing the pyramid’s massive weight without breaking. It would also have to be close enough to the capital for the king to view the construction progress anytime he wanted.
Some of Cairo’s earliest buildings date back to the Greco-Roman period, over two centuries BC; nevertheless, the Giza Pyramids are the most renowned and oldest of Egypt’s pyramids. Despite their proximity to Cairo city, the difference in time between the construction of the pyramids and the city itself demonstrates that they have distinctive histories.
The pyramids of Giza were part of an earlier city heritage and civilization before Cairo even existed. The ancient Egyptian city of Memphis was the seat of the Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC) and the birthplace of the Egyptians who constructed the pyramids. Memphis was the most powerful and well-known city not only in Egypt but also in the entire globe, according to one of the fascinating Egyptian pyramids facts. What made it renowned was the fact that almost 100 pyramids were erected near Cairo alone during that time. The fact that Cairo is close to Memphis demonstrates how significant Memphis was in ancient Egyptian history. Furthermore, Cairo and Memphis were, and still are, located in the Nile Delta’s upper reaches.
The Giza Pyramids are synonymous with Egypt’s name. The massive scale of the pyramids, particularly those in Giza, has always been and will continue to be an awe factor for millions of tourists that visit Egypt throughout the year. The element of surprise stems from the fact that everyone who visits Egypt wonders how the three kings, Khafre, Khufu, and Menkaure, were able to construct such massive monuments.
The Great Pyramid of Khufu
There are many interesting facts about Egyptian pyramids, like the fact that the Khufu pyramid, often known as the Great Pyramid of Giza, is regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Khafre, Khufu’s son, and King Menkaure are also famed for their spectacular pyramids in Giza, although neither of them is as large as King Khufu’s enormous pyramid. The Great Pyramid was built in 2560 BC and is 481 feet tall, however, it has recently been reduced to 455 feet due to the removal of its magnificent capstone. Archeologists today see ancient Egyptian buildings such as the pyramids as important indications of Egypt’s economic and political stability throughout the Old and Middle Kingdoms. Building a pyramid took a lot of money and time, as well as a lot of work to find the proper and competent labor force for the job. The massive size and quality of the structure of pyramids built at different times during Ancient Egyptian history demonstrate that the 4th dynasty had more sophisticated building resources than any previous time.
Chefren Pyramid (Khafre Pyramid)
The second biggest pyramid in Giza is the Khafre pyramid. It was erected for King Khafre, the third pharaoh of Ancient Egypt’s the Old Kingdom, who belonged to the 4th Dynasty (2540 BC). Chephren, a Greek name, was also used to refer to the monarch. He was the grandson of King Sneferu and the son of King Khufu, who constructed the Great Pyramid of Giza. During the Old Kingdom’s “golden period,” the pyramids erected by King Khafre and his family are regarded the greatest in Egypt’s and human history. The Great Sphinx statue is also one of the most well-known buildings in Egyptian history. It was constructed to safeguard the kings’ burial grounds at Giza. The Great Sphinx monument is next to the Valley Temple, which is close to Khafre’s pyramid. A huge statue of the king was discovered close to the Great Sphinx monument during excavation.
Menkaure’s Pyramid (Mykerinus Pyramid)
Menkaure’s Pyramid is the third and smallest of Giza’s great pyramids. It is the property of King Menkaure (Mycerinus in Greek). It is thought to have been completed towards the end of the 26th century BC, according to archaeologists. King Menkaure, like the other rulers who possessed pyramids at Giza, governed Egypt during the Old Kingdom Period of Egyptian history, during the 4th Dynasty. Certain archaeological evidence shows that Menkaure is the son of King Khafre, who owned the second pyramid and the Great Sphinx statue, although some historical sources disagree. The Menkaure Pyramid was once 215 feet tall, but owing to the removal of the outer casing and capstone, it is now just 204 feet tall. The bottom segment of Menkaure’s pyramid was enclosed in pink granite, while the top sections were coated in white Tura limestone, just like the other Giza pyramids.
The Giza Pyramids’ Great Sphinx
Statues like the Great Sphinx, with a lion’s body and a human’s head, initially emerged in Egypt during the early dynasty period as a type of depiction of a two-sided tale behind each construction of a monument. In the middle of the 4th dynasty, the first depiction of a king in the form of a statue of the great sphinx appeared. As the successor of Monarch Cheops, King Djetef Ra was the first king to have a Sphinx statue, which was regarded as the first royal depiction of its type in the form of a Sphinx. The statue was unearthed near the Abu-Rawash Pyramid in Giza and is currently housed in the Louvre Museum. So, what does it mean to be a “Sphinx”?. Sphinx is a Greek term derived from the Ancient Egyptian name “Ssp Ankhw,” which means “alive picture or representation of anything.” The King and his living image are primarily represented by the Sphinx statue, which also signifies the combination of mental and physical might. The human head of the statue represents the king’s mental strength, while the body of a lion represents his physical might. If the sphinx was a symbol of an ancient Egyptian God, Egyptologists think that they were able to tame the lion’s ferocious nature with human knowledge, transforming it into a heavenly calm figure.
Pyramids of Dahshur:
Dahshur, a town about 40 kilometers southwest of Cairo, is known for its magnificent historic buildings. Excavation efforts at the Dahshur site have so far discovered the ruins of seven pyramids, as well as large tomb complexes erected for queens and nobles from Memphis city through the 13th Dynasty during the Middle Kingdom. The Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid at Dahshur, both built during the reign of King Sneferu (2613-2589 BC), the founder of the 4th Dynasty, are excellent examples of the amazing structural progress seen in the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza and other ancient Egyptian pyramids.
The Dahshur Red Pyramid
The Red Pyramid, which was erected for Pharaoh Sneferu, is another impressive example of a large construction project from the 4th Dynasty. Another example is the Bent Pyramid, which is located near the Dahshur Necropolis. Sneferu chose to fix the errors that were created during the construction of the bent pyramid and the one at Meidum, which collapsed during construction. The Red Pyramid was completed in the early 26th century BC and was the first successful attempt to create a full pyramid, making it the most inspiring form of building for the subsequent 4th Dynasty pyramids of Giza.
The Dahshur Bent Pyramid
The Bent Pyramid in Dahshur was erected by King Sneferu, the father of King Khufu, the owner of the Great Pyramid of Giza, towards the end of the 27th century BC. The Bent Pyramid was King Sneferu’s first construction, and it was given that name because it was incomplete and needed to be repaired, but the King opted to leave it as is.
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