Kharga Oasis is the capital of the New Valley Governorate, located 232 kilometers south of Assiut, and is known for its many monuments, springs, and tourist sites, as well as several cold and hot sulfur wells and springs with temperatures reaching 43°C.
History of the Kharga Oasis
Because it fills a wide dip in the desert, the Kharga Oasis is known as the Great Oasis, and its capital is Hibis.
Since the Thirteenth Dynasty (1786-1665 BC), the Kharga Oasis has been a stop on the desert caravan route between the Hyksos in Lower Egypt and the Kingdom of Nubia in the south. If the camel did not arrive in Egypt until 1000 years later, the caravans comprised around 1000 donkeys. The remnants of the world’s earliest integrated residential and administrative complex were discovered on August 22, 2010, by an Egyptian-American archaeological project. That dwelling area was discovered near Jabal Ghuwaitah in the Kharga Oasis’ Umm Al-Mawajir region.
The climate in Kharga Oasis:
The Kharga Oasis is known for its dry environment, with humidity levels seldom exceeding 9.5 percent throughout the year, making it one of the world’s healthiest winters.
Monuments of the Kharga Oasis:
1. The Temple of Hibis
The Temple of Hibis lies roughly a kilometer north of the city’s center. This temple is significant because it reflects the Ptolemaic, Persian, and Roman eras. It was created to worship the Holy Trinity during the Pharaonic era, during the twenty-sixth dynasty (Amon-Mot-Khensu). Inscription on the front section of King (Nakhtenboatemple )’s around 350 BC. The temple is approached from the east, with the Holy Lake first, then the marina, and finally the Roman gate, which bears a Greek inscription from the Emperor (Ghelbareign ) in 69 AD. The gate follows the rams’ path to the Great Gate, then to the main gate. It is positioned at the temple’s far end, the Holy of Holies, and has its own set of inscriptions.
2. The Bajwat cemetery
The Al-Bajwat cemetery is located three kilometers north of Kharga, behind the Temple of Hibis, and gets its name from its vaulted architectural style. The (Escape) cemetery, whose paintings depict the exodus of the Children of Israel from Egypt, followed by Pharaoh and his army, and the (Peace) cemetery are the most notable of these graves in Egypt’s Coptic churches. Egypt’s Christian past is told via stories.
3. El Labkha (The ficus)
It’s about 13 kilometers north of Kharga, and it features the ruins of a fortress, a temple, and mud-brick tombs. There are also acacia and dom palm trees in the region, as well as a historic canal system that was used to gather water and irrigate the area during the Roman era.
4. The palaces of Nadura
It sits one kilometer from the city of Kharga, on the eastern side of the Temple of Hibis, and was given the name “Nadura,” which means “Overseer,” to serve as a control center throughout the Ottoman and Mamluk periods.
5. Mustafa Al-Kashef Palace
It’s behind the Bajwat cemetery, which is built on the foundations of a Roman fort. It’s a massive structure, and the oldest section of it is on the western side.
6. Al Ghuwaita Temple
It is located 21 kilometers. south of Kharga. It was constructed during the twenty-seventh dynasty for the adoration of the Holy Trinity (Amon – Mut – Khonsu). On the southern side of the temple, there exist inscriptions depicting Ptolemy wearing the crown of Upper Egypt, and on the northern side, the crown of Lower Egypt. The Holy of Holies marks the conclusion of the temple. The cottages in the shape of vaults were built next to it, and the building was completed. Ptolemy III, IV, and X, Ptolemy III, IV, and X, Ptolemy III, IV, and X.
7. Douch Temples in Paris oasis of Kharga
It is located in the desert 23 kilometers from Paris village. It was created to honor the Roman deity Saber Apis and the goddess Uzes. It dates from the reign of the Roman emperors, and depictions of the emperor giving gifts to the gods may be found on its walls.
8. The Temple of Al-Zayan
It is 25 kilometers south of Kharga and south of Al-Ghuwaitah Palace. The temple was established for the religion of Amun Hebet and was built during the Ptolemaic dynasty. The king presents a statue of Maat and the deity Amun, on the head of a ram, according to the inscriptions. The monastery is one of the old fortifications established to guard the caravan route at Darb Al-Arbaeen, some 30 kilometers north of Kharga, during the Roman Empire.
Antiquities Museum in Kharga
Many ancient archaeological artifacts discovered in Kharga are housed in the antiquities Museum in Kharga oasis, including Pharaonic paintings discovered in tiles in the area of the Dabba Castles, a statue of the god Horus and a statue of a crouching lion with a human face found in the Deir El-Hajar temple, as well as a group of Coptic era pottery and some pieces found in the Mut area in Dakhla.
The old Kharga
When concrete became available in the oasis as a more permanent construction material, residents began to abandon their ancient homes and replace them with bigger, more enduring structures. The historic homes/community are mud-brick structures with small, twisting alleyways that are roofed with dom-wood and palms, and each street has a gate that is locked when the Bedouins attack.