The plateau accommodates 9 pyramids, the biggest among them is the Great Pyramid of King Cheops. In this area, you can see two other pyramids, those of King Kephren, and King Mecarinoos. The pyramid of Cheops ( Khufu) used to be 146 m High, but due to losing the most outer layer of stone, it is now 137 m in height. The length of each side of the base is 230 m, while it was built on 12 acres. The ancient Egyptians used about 3 million limestone blocks to build this pyramid which considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
The Pyramid was once part of a huge complex extended from the current village of Nazlet El-seman where the valley temple of King Cheops was standing, to the western side of the Pyramid itself where visitors nowadays see the workers and Noble tombs, This complex consisted of
- The main tomb (the pyramid)
- The tomb’s entrance to the northern side of the Pyramid
- A funeral temple to the eastern side of the pyramid
- A valley temple
- A causeway connects the funeral temple with the valley temple.
- An enclosure wall surrounding the complex
The interior of the pyramid is massive, except for some three chambers and some corridors. As shown in the below picture, “B” is the original entrance of the great pyramid which is still blocked since the time of the Pharaohs, “A” is the entrance in use by visitors which was hewn in the rock in the 11th century by the workers of El-Khalife Ma’moon while he was seeking the treasures of king Khufu. From the original entrance “B” there is a 100 meters descending vestibule ends with the so-called blind chamber “C” which was dug originally to be the burial place of the king, but it was left unfinished and that is the reason why it is called “blind”. from the entrance “B” and after 35 meters, starts an ascending vestibule of 36 meters, and then another horizontal vestibule leads to the second chamber “D” called “the Queen chamber”, and that name was given to the chamber after being thought to be built for Khufu’s wife, but this is not true as this chamber was built also to be the eternal place of the king’s mummy!! Look at “E” on the picture below, this is a grand gallery with 48 meters length leads to the third chamber “F” which is the actual burial chamber of King Khufu. This third chamber is the biggest among all the chambers inside this pyramid, the stone sarcophagus of the king was found inside it, however, it was found empty and broken with no lid, and that indicates that the mummy, the treasures, and even the lid were all stolen. The width and height of the sarcophagus are bigger than the width and height of the entrance to the chamber which means the sarcophagus was located inside the chamber before finalizing it and before the ceiling was added!
Above the third chamber “F” there are 5 small empty rooms “G” was left empty to reduce the pressure of stones above the chamber. In the middle room of the 5 rooms, a phrase was found written in Hieroglyphic that says “construction work of the eternal place of king “Khunum-Kha-F-Wi” has been finished in the 23rd year of his reign”. This phrase is so important as it is the only evidence that the great pyramid belongs to Khufu and that it was built at his time by the ancient Egyptians! Also, it gives a very important piece of info which is that the pyramid was built in 23 years!
The great pyramid was never decorated from the outside, and we found no inscriptions or writings except for the above-mentioned phrase that was found inside the room above the burial chamber! The angle of slope for the great pyramid is 51.52 orientation.
The Pyramid of King Chephren
It is another large pyramid, the second largest of Egypt pyramids. It was opened in 1818 by the Italian tomb robber Giovani Batista Belzoni who was one of the very well known thieves of the 19th century!
Inside the burial chamber of the king, unfortunately, the Italian stupid guy wrote his name on the southern wall as ” Belzoni March 2, 1818″.
The Pyramid is 137 meters high, & the base length is 210 meters. It is built entirely of limestone except the burial chamber.
The Pyramid of King Mycarinus
It is the smallest of the Giza 3 pyramid of kings, it measures 66.5 meters in height. The king died before completing his pyramid, and it was completed by his son king Shepseskaf. The Pyramid is cased with granite stone while it was built also using limestone cut from the plateau itself.
Also this Pyramid was stolen by the same Italian thief named Belzoni.
Belzoni who stole the Pyramids of Giza collected all the treasures of those kings, as well as the mummies and wanted to take it all back to Europe, but his ship broke in the middle of the Mediterranean and that was his end and the lose of all these treasures forever!